Today in climate change (9 August 2019)

climate

Please find below links to recent climate change news…

Siberian Wildfires and Heatwaves in Alaska: How the Arctic Is Nearing a Point of No Return https://time.com/5641751/arctic-wildfires-heatwaves-alaska-climate-change/?xid=tcoshare

Australia records third-hottest July https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/aug/02/australia-records-third-hottest-july?CMP=share_btn_tw

A Nearly 100-Year-Old Physics Model Replicates Modern Arctic Ice Melt https://eos.org/articles/a-nearly-100-year-old-physics-model-replicates-modern-arctic-ice-melt

Climate Change Becomes an Issue for Ratings Agencies https://insideclimatenews.org/news/04082019/climate-change-ratings-agencies-financial-risk-cities-companies

July confirmed as hottest month recorded across the world https://edition.cnn.com/2019/08/05/world/hottest-july-on-record-climate-sci-intl/index.html

Greenland ice sheet loses 11 billion tons of water in one day amid historic heat https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/amid-historic-heat-greenland-ice-sheet-loses-11/story?id=64737944

Climate Change to Cause Chaos in Africa, Warn Scientists https://www.voanews.com/africa/climate-change-cause-chaos-africa-warn-scientists

Arctic wildfires, hybrid embryos and record-breaking heatwave https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02305-0?

Record heatwave ‘made much more likely’ by human impact on climate https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/aug/02/record-heatwave-made-much-more-likely-by-human-impact-on-climate?CMP=share_btn_tw

Sea level rise began accelerating in the 1960s, researchers find https://www.abc.net.au/news/science/2019-08-06/sea-level-rise-accelerated-sixties/11373830

Alaska’s sea ice has completely melted away https://mashable.com/article/alaska-sea-ice-melt-2019/

Just one in 20 Australian news stories about drought mention climate change https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2019/aug/02/just-one-in-20-australian-news-stories-about-drought-mention-climate-change?CMP=share_btn_tw

Increased shear in the North Atlantic upper-level jet stream over the past four decades https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1465-z

Fires, floods (and even bugs) are challenging Russia’s stance on the climate crisis https://edition.cnn.com/2019/08/06/asia/arctic-fires-russia-climate-change-intl/index.html

Rising global temperatures wreak havoc on urban “heat islands” https://www.axios.com/extreme-heat-cities-climate-change-strategies-0f090ff3-ba4f-45f8-b252-adf51e1ec161.html

With nowhere to hide from rising seas, Boston prepares for a wetter future https://www.sciencenews.org/article/boston-adapting-rising-sea-level-coastal-flooding

Today in climate change (2 August 2019)

CC 4 AugPlease find below links to recent news about climate change…

Copernicus Sentinel-3 satellite imagery shows Europe pulsing red http://www.digitaljournal.com/tech-and-science/technology/copernicus-sentinel-3-satellite-imagery-shows-europe-pulsing-red/article/554789

Heatwave: think it’s hot in Europe? The human body is already close to thermal limits elsewhere https://theconversation.com/heatwave-think-its-hot-in-europe-the-human-body-is-already-close-to-thermal-limits-elsewhere-121003

Nordic countries sizzle as European heatwave moves north https://phys.org/news/2019-07-nordic-countries-sizzle-european-heatwave.html

How federal flood policy is, and isn’t, addressing climate change today https://www.curbed.com/2019/7/29/8931718/storm-flood-climate-change-insurance

North Pole melts, forms lake at top of the world https://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/climate-weather/stories/north-pole-melts-forms-lake-at-top-of-the-world

Continent‐wide, interferometric SAR phase, mapping of Antarctic ice velocity https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2019GL083826

Climate sensitivity on geological timescales controlled by non‐linear feedbacks and ocean circulation https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2019GL083574

The terrible truth of climate change https://www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2019/august/1566136800/jo-lle-gergis/terrible-truth-climate-change
Going Under: How sea level rise is threatening to sink major Asian cities https://kontinentalist.com/stories/going-under-how-sea-level-rise-is-threatening-to-sink-major-asian-cities

UN chief calls for 2050 zero emissions plans – but Australia remains tightlipped https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jul/30/un-chief-calls-for-2050-zero-emissions-plans-but-australia-remains-tightlipped?CMP=share_btn_tw
The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet, leading to the desiccation of vegetation, which fuels huge blazes https://www.wired.com/story/the-bizarre-peaty-science-of-arctic-wildfires/?mbid=social_twitter_onsiteshare

Climate Change Really is Causing California’s Raging Wildfires https://www.insidescience.org/news/climate-change-really-causing-california%E2%80%99s-raging-wildfires

Australian climate change policies face growing criticism from Pacific leaders https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-07-31/australian-climate-change-policies-criticised-pacific-leaders/11369086

Greenland is melting in a heatwave. That’s everyone’s problem https://edition.cnn.com/2019/07/31/europe/greenland-heatwave-climate-crisis-intl/index.html

What do Alaska Wildfires Mean for Global Climate Change? https://blog.ucsusa.org/carly-phillips/alaska-wildfires-climate-change

Climate change is making wildfires so frequent and large that a dedicated task force has been set up in Lancashire https://inews.co.uk/news/climate-change-is-making-wildfires-so-frequent-and-large-that-a-dedicated-task-force-has-been-set-up-in-lancashire/

2℃ of global warming would put pressure on Melbourne’s water supply https://theconversation.com/2-of-global-warming-would-put-pressure-on-melbournes-water-supply-118389?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=twitterbutton

The most important event on the planet right now? Arctic Climate Chaos https://www.patreon.com/posts/28765160?fbclid=IwAR3VZr9vPkI-WhtkENR50gz6B8QUCEhuJwryT110SJHYLkbNRgilHXy98Q4

The State of Sea Level Rise (2019) http://climatestate.com/2019/08/01/the-state-of-sea-level-rise-2019/

Greenland Is Melting At Its Highest Elevations And That’s Unusual https://www.forbes.com/sites/marshallshepherd/2019/07/31/greenland-is-melting-at-its-highest-elevations-and-thats-unusual/#20fc3d587394

Today in climate change (19 July 2019)

CC 19 July

Please find links below to recent news about climate change…

‘Just a matter of when’: the $20bn plan to power Singapore with Australian solar https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jul/14/just-a-matter-of-when-the-20bn-plan-to-power-singapore-with-australian-solar?CMP=share_btn_tw

How Hope and Doubt Affect Climate Change Mobilization https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcomm.2019.00020/full

Observed impacts of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire in California https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2019EF001210

Taller, faster, better, stronger: wind towers are only getting bigger https://theconversation.com/taller-faster-better-stronger-wind-towers-are-only-getting-bigger-120492?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=twitterbutton

4 Reasons Why Urban Landscapes are a Linchpin for Climate Resilience https://meetingoftheminds.org/4-reasons-why-urban-landscapes-are-a-linchpin-for-climate-resilience-30705?

Flooding: Britain’s coastal towns and villages face a design challenge to cope with climate emergency https://phys.org/news/2019-07-britain-coastal-towns-villages-cope.html

Southerners Are Scared of the Climate Crisis, and Their Politicians Are Ignoring Them https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/vb9awa/southerners-are-scared-of-the-climate-crisis-and-their-politicians-are-ignoring-them?

Australia’s strategic thinkers can’t continue to ignore climate change https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/australias-strategic-thinkers-cant-continue-to-ignore-climate-change/

Wildfires could grow exponentially as climate warms, study warns https://www.cbsnews.com/news/california-wildfires-grow-exponentially-climate-change-study/#site-header78

Observed impacts of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire in California https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2019EF001210

July on course to be hottest month ever, say climate scientists https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jul/16/july-on-course-to-be-hottest-month-ever-say-climate-scientists?CMP=share_btn_tw

Today in climate change (5 July 2019)

climatePlease find below links to recent climate change news…

UN chief warns of ‘grave climate emergency,’ says Paris Agreement goals not enough https://globalnews.ca/news/5447866/antonio-guterres-climate-emergency/

France records all-time highest temperature of 45.9C https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jun/28/france-on-red-alert-as-heatwave-forecast-to-reach-record-45c?CMP=share_btn_tw

Temperature rises will make Brisbane a ‘difficult place to live’ within 30 years, report finds https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-06-22/temperature-increases-from-climate-change-brisbane-unliveable/11227404

‘Precipitous’ fall in Antarctic sea ice since 2014 revealed https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/01/precipitous-fall-in-antarctic-sea-ice-revealed

Investment slow to adapt to climate change, hiking risks http://news.trust.org/item/20190701194525-2nyqi/

UN report on 1.5C blocked from climate talks after Saudi Arabia disputes science https://www.climatechangenews.com/2019/06/27/un-report-1-5c-blocked-climate-talks-saudi-arabia-disputes-science/

How China’s sponge cities are preparing for sea-level rise https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/06/how-china-s-sponge-cities-are-preparing-for-sea-level-rise/

Australia posts hottest January-June for days as big dry rolls on https://www.theage.com.au/environment/weather/australia-posts-hottest-january-june-for-days-as-big-dry-rolls-on-20190702-p523f4.html

Climate change made European heatwave at least five times likelier https://www.theguardian.com/science/2019/jul/02/climate-change-european-heatwave-likelier?CMP=share_btn_tw

Climate change: Antarctic Peninsula ‘can still avoid irreversible change’ https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-48840528

Baked Alaska: record heat fuels wildfires and sparks personal fireworks ban https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jul/02/alaska-heat-wildfires-climate-change

Antarctic Land Ice Elevation Change Anomalies http://climatestate.com/2019/07/03/antarctic-land-ice-elevation-change-anomalies/

Initiatives for rehabilitation of climate change victims emphasized https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/nation/2019/07/04/initiatives-for-rehabilitation-of-climate-change-victims-emphasized

Migration cannot be the only option for people living on ‘drowning’ islands https://www.eco-business.com/opinion/migration-cannot-be-the-only-option-for-people-living-on-drowning-islands/

‘Unprecedented’ Wildfires Burned Across the Arctic Circle In June https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/qv79b5/unprecedented-wildfires-are-burning-across-the-arctic-circle?utm_source=vicetwitterus

Climate scientist calls for ‘world war type mobilization’ to combat climate change https://thehill.com/hilltv/rising/451497-climate-scientist-michael-mann-calls-for-world-war-type-mobilization-to-combat

Melted Alaska sea ice alarms coast residents, scientists https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/wireStory/melted-alaska-sea-ice-alarms-coast-residents-scientists-64052510

Are parts of India becoming too hot for humans? https://edition.cnn.com/2019/07/03/asia/india-heat-wave-survival-hnk-intl/index.html

The most effective way to fight climate change is to plant trees, over a trillion of them: study https://globalnews.ca/news/5461284/tree-plants-climate-change-study/?utm_source=%40globalnews&utm_medium=Twitter

In the world’s northernmost town, temperatures have risen by 4C, devastating homes, wildlife and even the cemetery https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2019/jul/01/its-getting-warmer-wetter-wilder-the-arctic-town-heating-faster-than-anywhere

A new top killer emerges in hurricanes, and many blame climate change https://www.miamiherald.com/news/weather/hurricane/article232137427.html

Today in climate change (14 June 2019)

 

climate

Please find below links to recent climate change news…

Arctic death spiral speeds up sixfold, driving coastal permafrost collapse https://thinkprogress.org/arctic-death-spiral-coastal-permafrost-collapse-23d650acea99/

85 per cent of NSW coastal users believe the sea level is rising, a staggering 50 per cent do not think it will impact them https://www.theage.com.au/environment/weather/half-the-people-on-nsw-coast-don-t-think-rising-sea-levels-will-hurt-them-gary-is-not-one-of-them-20190607-p51vjl.html

At least three in five Americans are reporting being personally affected by more extreme weather https://ecoamerica.org/american-climate-perspectives-survey-2019-vol-v/

UK’s net zero emissions plan can help lead the world https://www.ft.com/content/d4fdfb3c-8b6a-11e9-b8cb-26a9caa9d67b

Alberta wildfires are ‘climate change in action,’ scientist says as summer heat looms https://globalnews.ca/news/5370840/alberta-wildfires-climate-change/?utm_medium=Twitter&utm_source=%40globalbc

Concurrent 2018 hot extremes across Northern Hemisphere due to human‐induced climate change https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2019EF001189

Australia missing out on huge cuts in emissions through energy efficiency failure https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/jun/12/australia-could-cut-emissions-halfway-to-paris-target-under-global-energy-standards?CMP=share_btn_tw

Understanding and countering misinformation about climate change http://www.climatechangecommunication.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Cook_2019_climate_misinformation-1.pdf

Extreme weather may finally make climate change a ballot-box issue https://www.macleans.ca/politics/ottawa/extreme-weather-may-finally-make-climate-change-a-ballot-box-issue/

Extreme heat to hit one third of the African urban population https://www.preventionweb.net/news/view/65861

Barriers and opportunities for social-ecological adaptation to climate change in coastal British Columbia https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569119300390

Expected impacts of climate change in south and central America in 2050 https://www.reddit.com/r/MapPorn/comments/bz7mlo/expected_impacts_of_climate_change_in_south_and/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=ios_app

North Carolina’s New Outlook on Climate Resilience https://www.nrdc.org/experts/rob-moore/north-carolinas-new-outlook-climate-resilience

Japan adopts long-term emissions strategy under Paris Agreement http://news.trust.org/item/20190611105955-wo2rb/

A new analysis indicates that the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events are expected to increase as Earth continues to warm https://eos.org/research-spotlights/extreme-precipitation-expected-to-increase-with-warming-planet

Reports that say we’re all doomed in the face of the climate crisis ignore a history of survival—and the opportunity to make the future better https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/nea93d/actually-humans-probably-will-survive-the-climate-crisis

British newspaper takes lead in reframing climate change discussion https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/climate-change-journalism-language-guardian-cbc-1.5166678

Nearly a billion people facing high exposure to climate change effects, Global Peace Index finds https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-06-12/climate-change-hazards-global-peace-index-report/11198144

Why old-school climate denial has had its day https://theconversation.com/why-old-school-climate-denial-has-had-its-day-117752?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=twitterbutton

Flood experience changes people’s views on climate change https://www.fastcompany.com/90360538/watching-their-community-get-destroyed-by-a-flood-helps-convince-people-about-climate-change

Sea Level Rise when the Ground is Sinking https://www.ovela59.com/the-blog/sea-level-rise-when-the-ground-is-sinking

Plans for Australia’s largest coal mine to go ahead are fundamentally at odds with Australia’s commitment to tackling climate change https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/resources/carmichael-coal-report/

Wildfires & Global Warming: Portugal & the EU face up to dual dangers (part 1) https://www.france24.com/en/20190611-talking-europe-portugal-wildfires-forests-climate-change-risks-part-one?ref=tw

Arctic sea ice extent just hit a record low for early June; worse yet to come https://www.eco-business.com/news/arctic-sea-ice-extent-just-hit-a-record-low-for-early-june-worse-yet-to-come/

Today in climate change (8 March 2019)

Capture

Please find below links to recent climate change news…

A recent court ruling could signal a new direction for Australian climate law https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/climate-change-in-court

California’s Wildfires Burn Through America’s Climate Illusions https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2019-03-01/california-s-wildfires-show-we-ll-all-pay-for-climate-change

Resilience and Adaptation Strategies Can Address the Impacts of Climate Change https://www.rand.org/blog/rand-review/2019/02/resilience-and-adaptation-strategies-can-address-the.html?adbid=1102588515517255680&adbpl=tw&adbpr=22545453&adbsc=social_20190304_2711881

Humans cause climate change. Do we just need fewer humans? https://grist.org/article/humans-cause-climate-change-do-we-just-need-fewer-humans/?utm_campaign=RebelMouse&share_id=4440003&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&utm_content=Daily%20Climate

Climate change is the world’s biggest threat, according to a new global survey https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/02/climate-change-seen-as-top-threat-in-global-survey

One of the most northerly communities in the world, Tuktoyaktuk in Canada’s Northwest Territories, is fighting a losing battle against climate change http://www.rcinet.ca/en/2019/03/01/the-not-so-slowly-disappearing-arctic-shores/

Rising Seas Soaked Home Owners for $16 Billion over 12 Years https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/rising-seas-soaked-home-owners-for-16-billion-over-12-years/?amp

Wildfires, Flooding and Droughts Could Make Climate Change an Issue. Some Are Pushing for It to Be the Top One http://time.com/5543102/2020-election-climate-change/

UK shows how climate action done, with cuts to emissions for six years in a row https://reneweconomy.com.au/uk-shows-how-climate-action-done-with-cuts-to-emissions-for-six-years-in-a-row-86614/

Climate change: Satellite fix safeguards Antarctic data https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-47461199

The Silencing Of The Climate Emergency, And What We Should Do About It https://newmatilda.com/2019/03/05/silencing-climate-emergency/?utm_campaign=shareaholic&utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=socialnetwork

Scientists struck by New Zealand’s vanishing postcard glaciers https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12210155

Rainfall Is Triggering More Melting on the Greenland Ice Sheet, Study Finds https://insideclimatenews.org/news/07032019/greenland-ice-sheet-melting-rain-increase-climate-change-sea-level-rise-feedback-loop

Australia’s ‘angriest summer’: 200 records broken and fruit cooking on trees https://www.sbs.com.au/news/australia-s-angriest-summer-200-records-broken-and-fruit-cooking-on-trees

The other kind of climate denialism https://www.newyorker.com/science/elements/the-other-kind-of-climate-denialism

How Global Warming Changes the Difficulty of Synoptic Weather Forecasting https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL081856

 

Today in climate change (23 November 2018)

climate

Please find below links to recent climate change news…

From sea to rising sea: Climate change in America https://www.seas.harvard.edu/content/from-sea-to-rising-sea-climate-change-in-america

With wildfires, heat waves, and rising sea levels, large tracts of the earth are at risk of becoming uninhabitable https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/11/26/how-extreme-weather-is-shrinking-the-planet

Climate change on track to make world ‘uninsurable’ https://www.afr.com/business/insurance/climate-change-on-track-to-make-world-uninsurable-iag-20181115-h17xu5

A real-time Global Warming Index https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pfEPgPpARc&feature=youtu.be&utm_source=Twitter&utm_medium=Social_media_organic&utm_content=AngWan-Nature-Scientific_Reports-Multidisciplinary-Global&utm_campaign=SCIREP_USG_twitter_noncfp_content&sf202400510=1

In Viet Nam’s Mekong Delta, climate change effects such as saltwater intrusion are increasingly devastating crops and livelihoods https://www.climate2020.org.uk/change-in-the-delta/

A small country with a big climate change plan http://www.tl.undp.org/content/timor_leste/en/home/stories/TL_NAPA_aileu_farmers.html

The Urban Adaptation Assessment (UAA) is an interactive database https://gain-uaa.nd.edu/

Broad threat to humanity from cumulative climate hazards intensified by greenhouse gas emissions https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-018-0315-6#Abs1

Deluge and Drought: Climate Council issues grim warning on looming water security crisis https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/resources/water-security-report/

‘Like a Terror Movie’: How Climate Change Will Cause More Simultaneous Disasters https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/19/climate/climate-disasters.html

Broad threat to humanity from cumulative climate hazards intensified by greenhouse gas emissions https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-018-0315-6

China glacier melt speeds up in ‘wake-up call’ for world http://news.trust.org/item/20181120054011-p9qi1

Second warmest October and fourth warmest year-to-date on record https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/news/global-climate-201810

Assessing the alignment of national-level adaptation plans to the Paris Agreement https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901118306592?via%3Dihub

New study warns we face wildfires, superstorms, floods, droughts all at once, everywhere https://thinkprogress.org/trump-great-climate-wildfires-superstorms-floods-droughts-all-at-once-everywhere-4e5d6e3455a4/

Climate change linked to more destructive fires https://www.mercurynews.com/2018/11/20/letter-climate-change-linked-to-more-destructive-fires/

Images like that of a polar bear on a melting ice field are iconic. But in terms of getting people to act on climate change, they may be ineffective http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20181115-why-climate-change-photography-needs-a-new-look

Antarctic melting slows atmospheric warming and speeds sea level rise https://phys.org/news/2018-11-antarctic-atmospheric-sea.html

Warming ocean waters turned Hurricane Michael into a superstorm https://www.pri.org/stories/2018-11-05/warming-ocean-waters-turned-hurricane-michael-superstorm?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=psu%20official

Canadians produce three times more greenhouse gas emissions than G20 average https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-canada-found-to-produce-most-greenhouse-gas-emissions-per-person-among/

Climate change: Report raises new optimism over industry https://www.bbc.com/news/business-46263770

Traceable evidence of the impacts of climate change on humanity http://impactsofclimatechange.info/

Addressing the most vulnerable first: Pro-poor climate action in informal settlements https://unhabitat.org/un-habitat-thematic-guide-addressing-the-most-vulnerable-first-pro-poor-climate-action-in-informal-settlements/

Wildfires Show Snowballing Effect of Climate Change: Study https://www.bna.com/wildfires-show-snowballing-n57982094072/

A Very Grim Forecast: Global Warming of 1.5°C: An IPCC Special Report https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2018/11/22/global-warming-very-grim-forecast/

Pacific Ocean typhoons could be intensifying more than previously projected https://blogs.agu.org/geospace/2018/11/20/pacific-ocean-typhoons-intensifying-more-than-previously-projected/

2018 Yearbook of Climate Action https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/GCA_Yearbook2018.pdf

Fast-growing African cities at ‘extreme risk’ from climate change: analysts https://www.maplecroft.com/portfolio/new-analysis/2018/11/14/84-worlds-fastest-growing-cities-face-extreme-climate-change-risks/

When Rising Seas Hit Home: An Analysis by the Union of Concerned Scientists https://ucsusa.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=64b2cbd03a3d4b87aaddaf65f6b33332

Twentieth-century contribution to sea-level rise from uncharted glaciers https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0687-9

The Climate Change Gender Gap https://www.usnews.com/news/national-news/articles/2018-11-20/yale-women-more-worried-less-knowledgeable-about-climate-change

Climate-heating greenhouse gases at record levels, says UN https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/nov/22/climate-heating-greenhouse-gases-at-record-levels-says-un

WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (GHG Bulletin) – No. 14 https://library.wmo.int/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=20697#.W_cl8IczbIU